Тренувальні вправи на переклад з англійської на українську мову (Частина 1.)


1. Визначте граматичний час речень. Дайте декілька варіантів перекладу.

1.      Only a few instances will be given here.

2.      His answer was appreciated by everybody.

3.      A new exhibition has been organized in this building.

4.      The most important documents are signed here.

5.      His lecture will be broadcast by the radio tomorrow.

6.      The new-discovered language was described and deciphered.

7.      The inscriptions have not yet been fully studied.

8.      The most important archaeological collections are housed in museums.

9.      This paper was first published in another edition, and is reprinted here with the permission of the editors.

10.    The above problem is being investigated by one of the writers,1 and the results will be published separately.

11.    All these ancient tools have been mentioned above, and something more will be said about them in the following chapter.

2.      Підберіть найкращий варіант для перекладу.

1. According to one version the famous library was destroyed during the strife between Ptolemy XV and his sister Cleopatra for the throne; according to another, it was burned six centuries later.

2. Almost all sciences except perhaps medicine suffered a relapse 2 during the Dark Ages 3 when scientific pursuits were considered antireligious. The occasional scholar who attempted such studies was often persecuted and his progress discouragingly slow.

3.      The origin of the race of men who made the Nile valley the cradle of civilization is still being sought by scholars.

4.      On the whole 4 Chekhov’s plays are constructed in the same way as his stories. The differences are due to the differences of material and are imposed by the use of dialogue.

5.      These papers were in their original form read at a conference of the English Institute, 1954.

3. Перекладіть. Зверніть увагу на значення і граматичний час модального дієслова.

1.      The question can be decided later.

2.      The newspaper must be translated without a dictionary.

3.      The lecture is to be delivered at eleven o’clock.

4.      The teacher fell ill, so the lesson had to be postponed.

5.      A word  should be said about the origin of this term.

6.      This rule cannot be applied here.

7.      These books must not be touched without permission.

8.      A word or two6 may be said as to the plan upon which the book is constructed.

9.      The letters will have to be posted in the morning.

4. Перекладіть. Зверніть увагу на те, який відмінку слід обрати для перекладу підмета в англійському реченні. 

1.      We were informed that he had been sent to a conference.

2.      He was sent only two copies of this book.

3.      They were asked  about  it  yesterday.

4.      We were asked to come in.

5.      He had been taught Latin and Greek in his boyhood.

6. We were given only three tickets instead of five.

7. She was given a watch as a birthday present.

8.      The visitors were shown many new exhibits.

9.      They were shown into a large hall.

10.    He has not been seen anywhere today.

11.    We were shown in 9 and asked to wait.

12.    She was advised to spend the summer in the Crimea.

13.    They were ordered to be silent.

14.    The painter was assisted by two of his disciples.

15.    We have not been offered anything yet.

16.    The boy was helped with his lessons by his elder sister.

17.    I was told that all the strangers were refused admittance to that building.

18.    To this end 10 lengthy discussion has been avoided here.

19.    He was admired not only for his technical skill, but also for his ability to attract people.

20.    This information should not be ignored.

21.    This unpleasant meeting is not to be avoided.

5. Перекладіть. Зверніть увагу на підмет в англійському реченні.

1.      By 1542 Negro slaves were forbidden to leave the haciendas, villages or cities after dark.

2.      The preservation of an archaic literary language is greatly helped by its being at the same time a written language.

3.      Tents were quickly dressed, and the knights were told to dismount from their horses.

4.      This work cannot be given a high place as literature,11 but it is valuable for the contemporary documents it contains.

5.      This analogical tendency is to some extent 12 aided by grammarians who prefer «regular» to «irregular» schemes.

6.      Fielding’s last novel «Amelia» has been admired by some even more than «Tom Jones» 13 probably because of the beautiful character of the heroine.

7.      For a number of years commercial relations were kept up with Spain through Mexico, and the Dutch and the English were both permitted to establish trading factories in the South.

8.      In the later history of Chinese, the use of the classifier was favoured by the increasing phonetic poverty and different classifiers served to distinguish words which were becoming homophones.

9.      Esarhaddon’s14 appointment had been opposed by his brothers and some district governors who incited his father against him.

10.    Consequently expert seamen and ship’s carpenters were sent out from St. Petersburg. On one hand the men were promised both worldly and spiritual rewards: wealth, promotions and imperial favor if by the Grace of Christ they would reach Kamchatka. On the other hand they were threatened with certain death if they delayed or slowed down their  voyage.

11.    Festivals were preceded by hunting expeditions to obtain small animals, such as rats, which were smoked and strung together to be worn as necklaces.

12.    The sword in Old English times was owned (judging from finds), by only one man in twenty.

6. Перекладіть речення, попередньо підбираючи до дієслова відповідний прийменник.

1.      Не was well spoken of by all his friends.

2.      The hour of the meeting was agreed upon.

3.      This case was much spoken and written about.

4.      His data can be relied upon.

5.      The room has not been slept in for many years.

6.      The whole story was much laughed at.

7. Перекладіть. Зверніть увагу на місце прийменника в українському реченні і на переклад самого прийменника.

1. The order of words (in English) is fairly rigid: it cannot easily be departed from, and most departures alter the type, or the emphasis, or the meaning of the sentence.

2.      Place names cannot always be relied on for guidance.

3.      For further details the reader is referred to the end of the book.

4.      It’s twenty years since he went away from home with his gun, and he has never been heard of since.

5.      His poetry, which is very good, if not absolutely of the first class, may be spoken of later.

6.      In English, as in other European languages, most words can be referred with certainty to Aryan 15 roots, but others are more recent than the time when written literature began.

7.      This work should also be referred to for a detailed account of the Museum Collections.

8.      In the fashionable districts (of Bath 16) practically every dwelling had  been lived in at some time by many famous people.

9.      On the whole this defective system (of writing) works quite well in literature with which the reader is well acquainted, and it is indeed surprising to the European student of the Semitic languages to discover how easily vowel signs can be dispensed with in reading.

10. The use of soft copper was given up very soon wherever intercourse with the whites became habitual and iron became obtainable.

8. Перекладіть українською.

1.      The exceptions are not easily accounted for.

2.      Expressions of this kind are often met with in his poetry.

3.      These lines will be commented upon in the following paragraph.

4.      He is often referred to аs the founder of tin’s school.

5.      Some urgent problems of our work have been touched upon here.

6.      We were listened to with much surprise.

7.      Tell him he is waited for.

8.      The speaker was listened to with growing interest.

9.      The details will be dealt with later.

10. Great changes were brought about by historical factors.

9. Перекладіть, попередньо визначивши якого прийменника потребує дієслово в українській мові.

1.      We were joined by the others only two hours later.

2.      The first question is readily answered.

3.      He was addressed by a stranger.

4.      He had been greatly influenced by Dutch painters.

5.      This dialect is spoken only in the mountaneous part of the country.

6.      Each poem of this kind is almost always followed by a short maxim,

7.      This sacred room was penetrated only by the higher priests.

8.      The problem of Greek decline may be approached from two sides.

9.      Our (English) modern consonants are little affected by surrounding vowels.

10.    We shall now see how the three departments of literature — prose, poetry and the drama — were affected by this new spirit.

11.    The pronunciation of a few English words has been affected by modern  French: for example,  machine  and police.

12.    The authenticity of this document may be judged from several sources.

10. Перекладіть.

1.      Everybody followed his example.

2.      His example was followed by everybody.

3.      One volume followed the other.

4.      This volume was followed by a second one.

5.      She has not followed your advice.

6.      Your advice has not been followed.

7.      Both men followed each other in silence.

8.      The introduction is followed by the list of illustrations.

9.      The  majority of  authors  follow this simple rule.

10.    This simple rule is followed by the majority of grammarians.

11.    The police were following him for several hours.

12.    He understood that he was being followed by the police.

11. Перекладіть речення, звертаючи увагу на різні значення дієслів to affect, to follow, to succeed.

1.      The first revolutionary wave broke in 1825, in the entirely unsupported and unsuccessful mutiny of the Decembrists. It was followed by the long reaction of the reign of Nicholas I, during which rose the second wave.

2.      Italy, within which at the dawn of history a multitude of different languages and dialects were spoken, achieved linguistic unity under the aegis of Rome.

3.      As time went on, this culture tended to become rather less purely Greek, for it was penetrated to a greater or lesser degree by oriental elements.

4.      Numerous foreign terms of civilized life appeared in old English times, and were joined in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by a crowd of others connected with the church.

5.      The method I have been describing in the text is, of course, one that is followed by all of us.

6.      This glacial period was followed by a warmer interval known as the First Interglacial Stage.

7.      Bulgarian art was in fact more closely affected by Constantinople than was the art of many of the numerous portions of the empire which never enjoyed 17 national independence.

8.      «Lady Windermere’s Fan» was a  success. It was followed by «A Woman of No Importance»,18 produced at the Haymarket Theatre on 19 April, 1893.

9.      If the correct syntactical punctuation is followed, the texts may be translated as follows.

10. The purpose of the present study is to examine the way in which Dickensian biography and criticism have been, affected in their development by the materials that were most easily available.

11.    These biographies were succeeded by the standard biography of Dickens, written by his friend John Forster which still remains the best written and the most reliable.

12.    This king was succeeded by his eldest son Motokiyo, who  died  in  1455.

13.    The houses of this small town are funny-shaped. Most of them are entered by a staircase, as the lower part is used as a fish-cellar.

14.    In preparing this new edition the original arrangement has been followed in general outline.

15.    The new schools of dramatists were largely influenced by the French drama and French fashions.

16.    What is the main lesson of Hamlet? The question, I think, is answered in all essentials in the following passage.

17.    If one and the same language is spoken in different communities, the tendency will be not only to change, but also to differentiation.

18.    Mary I (1553—1558) died young and was succeeded by her Protestant  half-sister  Elizabeth  I  (1558—1603).

12. Знайдіть в наступних реченнях сполучення дієслова з іменником. Перекладіть речення.

1.      Efforts were made to elucidate the problem.

2.      No special attention has been paid to this period of his life.

3.      Care was taken not to overburden the text with too many quotations.

4.      His letter has not been taken any notice of.

5.      This opportunity should not be lost sight of.

6.      A preference is shown by the author to short dialogues.

13. Перекладіть речення, попередньо зробивши переклад сполучення дієслова з іменником.

1.      It is possible, however, that too much emphasis has been placed upon this factor.

2.      Lastly, mention must be made of Milton’s technical skill.

3.      More careful attention was paid to grammar at that period.

4.      An effort has, in addition, been made to provide a continuous narrative, and to avoid the form of a handbook intended primarily for consultation.

5.      In ordinary communicative speech no attention is drawn to the sound of words, or to word order.

6.      The entire question cannot be here discussed, but attention should be called to the fact that many of these resemblances between ancient and modern features are more fancied than real.

7.      This system known in Japanese history as «Southern and Northern Courts» 19 was put an end to by the reunion of the two lines in the person of Go Comatsu (1392).