Тренувальні вправи на переклад з англійської на українську мову (Частина 2.)

Опубліковано:

1. Перекладіть речення, враховуючи особливості перекладу безособових конструкцій.

1.      It is known that they will arrive tomorrow.

2.      It is expected that the Conference will take place in Kiev.

3.      It is hoped that the new edition of this book will be of no less interest to the reader.

4.      It will be noticed that these poems are of quite a different character.

5.      It has been shown in the above examples that the sense of the sentence often depends on the order of words.

6.      It is sometimes said that the Nile is longer than all the rivers in the eastern and western hemispheres.

7.      It will be seen from the following tables that the sounds do not coincide in quality.

8.      It is related of this man that he never passed a day of his life without reading.

9.      It was thought useful to apply this method here. 10. It has been estimated that the volume contained 220 pages.

2. Перекладіть. Підберіть найбільш вдалий варіант перекладу модального дієслова.

1.      It must be borne in mind that all the rules may have exceptions.

2.      It must be added that the minor works are not included here.

3.      It cannot be denied that his original work is a success.

4.      It is to be remembered that these data come from different sources.

3. Перекладіть речення, намагаючись підібрати найбільш точний еквівалент для вираження безособових чи неозначених конструкцій в українському реченні.

1.      It will be seen that the distinction between different parts of speech always depends on formal criteria.

2.      It was doubted that Shaw’s plays would retain their interest when the problems treated in  them – slums, women’s rights, marriage customs had ceased to be of immediate concern.

3.      Views as to 21 the actual date of the manuscript varied; the seventh century was the most usually favored, but it was generally agreed that the illustrations belonged to an archetype perhaps as early as 22  the  second  century.

4.      It will be readily understood that the difficulty of arriving at the 23 meaning of such compositions is very considerable.

5.      In considering loan-words it has to be remembered that, when two languages are in contact, words which are themselves borrowed may pass from one to another.

6.      It has been said that Latin is more concise than English. The reverse is the case.24 English is briefer than Latin.

7.      It is to be remembered that it was advisable to issue the proclamation of Henry Ill’s adherence to the Provisions 25 in English as well as in Latin.

8.      Speaking of the influence exerted on the African peasants by workers who lose their jobs and return to their native villages, Woddis writes: «One is inevitably reminded here of Lenin’s observations regarding the influence of the Russian workers on the peasant in the period leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1905».

9.      The Eskimos of the North-west Coast, it will be remembered, use to this day harpoon-heads of this kind.

10.    Let it be stressed, however, that an understanding of the build and form of the land, a knowledge of the routes of communication and an idea of the character of the natural resources — are all of them factors which should be considered at the outset 26 by every historian of art in the course of his examination of a particular area or a particular civilization.

11.    It has been thought not superfluous, however, to add a few data of this kind, without a knowledge of which it is impossible to understand the course of the literary development.

12.    «Better a live dog than a dead lion». The last example, it will  be observed,  contains transverse alliteration and assonance.

13.    As is readily seen, the problems and questions in regard to 27 this subject are far more numerous than the solutions.

14.    People living upon lakes plentifully stocked with fish, it can be imagined, availed themselves of all means in their power for capturing them.

15.    It has been ascertained beyond doubt that two kinds of cattle were common during the stone age.

4. Перекладіть.

1.      In Eire, the Irish Free State, Irish has been made the official language and is spoken by about three million people, practically all of whom also speak English.

2.      Few references to other works have been given in the body of the text, although the author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to all the works listed in general bibliography and the chapter bibliographies to which the student is referred to for anything beyond the outline here offered.

3.      It is recognized that equivalence in both meaning and style cannot always be retained. When, therefore, one must be abandoned for the sake of the other, the meaning must have priority over the stylistic forms.

4.      The bibliographies at the close of each chapter have again been brought up to date, though they have at the same time also been somewhat simplified.

5.      The formation of a common language is assisted by intercourse of any kind, so especially by military service.

6.      The Stone Age Section has been given the largest space, especially now that a special exhibition of the new acquisitions has been arranged.

7.      He began his writing in the old style, and though he could not, as an educated man brought in close contact with the younger poets, be unaffected by them, he was by no means a consistent adherent of the school.

8.      The opportunity has been taken here to publish a revised edition covering a much wider and more representative selection of London’s libraries.

9.      Meanwhile, in 1704, the Kamchatkan tradesman Vasilii Kolesov had been ordered by the authorities in Yakutsk to explore the limits of Kamchatka and to investigate whether there existed islands and if so to whom they belonged.

10.    Long after Sanscrit ceased to be spoken as anyone’s native language, it remained (as classical Latin remained in Europe) the artificial medium for all writing on learned topics.

11.    These two individuals, the speaker and the hearer, and their relations to one another should never be lost sight of, if we want to understand the nature of language, and that part of language which is dealt with in grammar.

12.    The whole question of Middle English dialects is now being subjected to rigorous scrutiny by A. Mc. Infosh (Edinburgh) and some others.

13.    Thinking arises only out of sense-perception and must be preceded by it.

14.    The Reference books in the Reading Room are kept under review and, wherever necessary, new books are substituted for those which are superseded.

15.    Much of the older grammatical equipment of particles and terminations is now dispensed with (in Modern Japanese).

16.    Slaves (in America) were chattels; they were denied even the sensibilities of a brute animal. Two hundred years of legislation had sanctified and sanctioned Negro Slaves a property. And property they indeed were. Like domestic animals they were referred to as «stock».

17.    Nevertheless, it may be affirmed that there were repeated glaciations in Northern Germany, and it may safely be asserted that the maximum glaciation there coincided with the Mindel Glacial Stage in the Alpine region.

18.    The general plan, however, of this series has not been lost sight of. Important writers have been treated at comparatively greater length, to the neglect of many lesser notabilities, and an attempt has been made, in so far as 29 the state of our knowledge permits, to follow the literature and to trace the causes which determined its character at particular periods.

19.    In 1837 one ship made its way nearly to Yedo 30 in the effort to return a few castaways. She was fired upon, and returned without having landed her charges.

20.    American artists from Brockden Brown and Рое to Henry James and Eliot have suffered this fate. They have been thought of as expatriots and they have been denied a place in the literary history of the nation because they criticized their civilization.

21.    Within a few centuries, owing to the difficulty of communications and the lack of a literary tradition, the Anglo-Saxon of England and the Frisian of the German lowlands had developed into widely divergent languages. At a much later period the coming of English-speaking immigrants to the shores of America was attended by a somewhat similar linguistic divergence.

22.    Roman Latin had become the standard,  normal speech of all Italy and after the first century A. D. no reference was made to local accents or dialectal variations.

23.    People are influenced by the pronunciation and words they hear on the radio and TV or in spoken motion pictures, and our radio and- TV-picture language is imitated more and more by the people who hear it so that our language tends to become more and more uniform all the time.

24.    It is assumed by many people that a repetition of a word will make the meaning more emphatic, but this is not always the case.

25.    Simpler forms are substituted for the older, and the vocabulary is enriched by the accession of a vast number of new words.

26.    As new things were invented, they were given names built up from Latin and Greek roots.

27.    As before noticed, the work of Mr. Wells as a true novelist must really be judged on the work of the period 1900-1909.

28.    There can be little doubt that the Angles, Saxons and Jutes were a mixture of many tribal elements; though after they had been settled a few generations in England, Angles were being addressed as Saxons, Saxons were calling themselves Angles and the whole conglomeration was being referred to as Englishmen and their language as English speech.

5. Перекладіть речення. Зверніть увагу на переклад інфінітиву.

1. То define the varieties of English prose style is the purpose of the chapters that follow.

2.      To preserve a literary tradition under these circumstances was doubly difficult, and it was not preserved.

3.      Mary Stuart was detained in various castles for almost twenty years, since to have restored her to her throne by force was impossible politically and to have handed her over to the Scots for execution unthinkable treachery.

4.      To say that mind  does  not  exist  in  abstraction from body is not, however, to say that mental processes do not exist.

5.      To have overburdened the book with so many details would tire the reader.

6.      To render easy the movement of modern prose, to vary its structure so that it shall not be monotonous, to add to its natural perspicuity an exactness which shall be unequivocal, demand great care and skill from an author.

7.      The second, more serious  objection still  remains: the system of writing cannot adequately express the whole range of human thought; and to do so even partially will require thousands of characters.

6. Перекладіть.

1.      То supply the needs of the new civilization a vast increase of vocabulary became necessary.

2.      The natives cast about their shoulders a rectangular cape so as to keep off the cold or merely for the sake of 1 elegance.

3.      To think about the world we must first perceive the world.

4.      In order to grasp the full meaning of a work of art we need to know a great deal 2 more about the sources of its theme and style than can be learned by the merely aesthetic approach.

5.      To prevent the soil from being seized again by a few landowners and to allow for the growth of population, a redistribution of the fields was to take place every six years.

6.      It would seem a truism that to be a linguist (scientific or otherwise) one must first learn to speak many languages.

7. Перекладіть речення, звертаючи увагу на переклад інфінітиву.

1.      The resemblance is almost too close to be accidental.

2.      Most of the population of these islands are farmers, but they do not grow enough to feed themselves.

3.      In British Isles all the lakes are of fresh water, and all bodies of water large enough to be called lakes are connected with the sea by means of rivers.

4.      Italians, whether soldiers or 3 civilians, were too few to leave any lasting physical trace on the population of the country they invaded.

5.      Too little is as yet 4 known of the origin of the Far Eastern peoples to enable us to determine accurately all the racial connections of the Japanese.

8. Перекладіть речення, підбираючи відповідне словосполучення з інфінітивом.

1.      A great household (such as Shakespeare depicts in Twelfth Night or Lear) might consist of several hundred persons — family, dependents, expert  officials — to  say nothing of the scores of guests and neighbors.

2.      To put the matter in another way, word-symbols possess the power of absorbing the meaning of the surrounding context, which can then be discarded without appreciable loss.

3.      To return to our play, it is evident that «Phedre» 5 is the ideal type of a baroque tragedy, not only by its style, but by its basic conception.

4.      To begin with, the concept of related languages was strikingly confirmed by the existence in far-off India, of a sister of the familiar languages of Europe (Sanscrit).

5.      To pass now from the outer form of words to their inner meaning, there is again so much that is common to all mankind, that we cannot be surprised to find a number of correspondencies between languages widely apart.

6.      The harbours of Nagasaki and Yokohama, to mention only two, are the most convenient.

9. Перекладіть. Зверніть увагу на наявність чи відсутність відтінка модальності. Поясніть це явище.

1.      The earliest tablets to be discovered were of the native wood.

2.      These printed lists contain material not to be found elsewhere.

3.      The last problem to be considered is that dealing with the tablets.

4.      The first European (Magellan) ever to sail across the wide Pacific was curious about the hidden worlds beneath his ship.

5.      The choice of the road to be taken was not difficult. The Army was moving northwards.

6.      Kyushu was the first island to be greatly affected by intercourse with Europe in the sixteenth century.

7.      Evidently our power of making this comparison depends upon our knowledge of the things to be compared.

8.      The Globe playhouse was opened in 1599, and it has been thought probable that «Julius Caesar» was the first Shakespeare play to be presented there.

9.      It will be seen that while the idealist explanation tries to relate the phenomenon to be explained to some spiritual cause, the materialist explanation relates it to material causes.

10.    Did human beings always possess the power of speech? If not, when and how did they acquire it? Are human beings the only ones to have it?

11.    Moreover, it was not the classics themselves, as much as the works of Italy and France above mentioned, which had so important an influence on the poets to be presently considered, particularly on Chaucer.6

12.    Turning from the correspondences to be found in the archaic parts of the vocabulary to the structure and contents of Modern English, we find that a very great change has taken   place.

13.    Only a few men in all the history of the world have had the experience of descending, alive, beyond the range of visible light (into the ocean). The first to do so were William Beeb and Otis Barton (1934).

14.    Under a strange sky, where there was none to render us aid, we tossed about over the sea.

15.    I suppose that there is more education to be had from that remark than from an hour’s reading of Ovid.

16.    The first foreign language and English word count to appear based on a scientific foundation was that of Henrnon in 1924.

10. При перекладі звенрніть увагу на граматичний час дієслівної звязки to be.

1.      Our aim was to include all pertinent information that came to our attention up to October, 31, 1951.

2.      The first business  of  grammar,  as  of every other science, is to observe the facts and phenomena with which it has to deal; and to classify and state them methodically.

3.      A first step in stylistic analysis will be to observe such deviations as the repetitions of sounds, the inversion of word order and some others.

4.      Their method of conquest was to make military roads and to plant along them forts garrisoned by the regular troops.

5.      My concern here has been to show that a significant difference separates these two types of Comedy.

6.      The object of this little book is to explain by examples how the different parts of speech are used and to show from their uses how they should be defined.

7.      To assign all the words of English to their original sources is not to determine the mode of their entrance into English.

8.      The method of reading was, according to N., to read one row from left to right, then come hack reading the next from right to left.

9.      In so far as 7 a foreign language coincides with the native tongue, to study one is to study another.

10.    The function of this staff is to maintain the service of books to readers, to assist in finding books and to give advice in problems of research or bibliography.

11.    Our task in this case would be to find the original picture.

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